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All of these words are nouns , words that identify the whos, wheres, and whats in language. Nouns name people, places, and things. Read the sentence that follows:. George and Godzilla walked to Antonio's to order a large pepperoni pizza. George is a person. Antonio's is a place. Pizza is a thing. Godzilla likes to think he's a person, is as big as a place, but qualifies as another thing. Nouns can function as subjects , direct objects , indirect objects , objects of prepositions , and subject complements.
Check out these examples:. Godzilla ordered a large pepperoni pizza and ate the pie in a single bite. George offered Godzilla a ten-dollar loan to buy a second pizza. While eating a piece of pizza, George dripped tomato sauce onto his shirt.
Nouns have different classes: Proper nouns name specific , one-of-a-kind items while common nouns identify the general varieties. Proper nouns always begin with capital letters; common nouns, on the other hand, only require capitalization if they start the sentence or are part of a title.
Read these two versions:. George and Godzilla dined at Antonio's. A boy and his monster dined at a pizza restaurant. You classify concrete and abstract nouns by their ability to register on your five senses. If you can see, hear, smell, taste, or feel the item, it's a concrete noun. If, however, you cannot experience the item with any of your senses, it's abstract. Here are two examples:. Godzilla never tips the delivery boy from Antonio's; politeness is not one of Godzilla's strong points.
Many nouns can be singular or plural; these are count nouns. Noncount nouns , on the other hand, have only a singular form; to make them plural is illogical. Read the sentences that follow:. Godzilla ate three pizzas , two delivery boys , and six parked cars. Godzilla didn't have to be such a pig; he could have eaten only one pizza, one delivery boy, and one car.
After overindulging at Antonio's, Godzilla got severe indigestion. You cannot write, "Godzilla got eleven indigestions. Stubbins recalls she had a complicated relationship with Johnson. And Stubbins, who is black, has heard about his racist Facebook posts. This was the first time investigators linked Danny Ray Johnson to a mysterious arson plot. On June 12, , the Heart of Fire Church was ablaze. Flames lit the sky. The building burned to the ground.
Investigators found a rear door of the church unlocked. They discovered a flammable liquid had been poured down a hallway and intentionally set on fire. As part of the church fire probe, investigators talked to a man who had driven by around the time of the blaze. He told them he saw a white, late-model Cadillac pulling out from behind the church with no lights on, according to police records. And the Cadillac had sped off down Bardstown Road.
At the time of the fire, he and his wife Rebecca had two cars, records show. One of them was a white Cadillac. With his church in ashes, Johnson denied playing any role in the fire. Instead, he blamed the Ku Klux Klan and claimed that numerous threats had been made against the church. At the time it burned down, the Heart of Fire Church was essentially bankrupt, according to the insurance company Brotherhood Mutual, which filed a lawsuit after the blaze. The company claimed that the church owed far more on outstanding loans than it could ever pay, more than the property was worth, more than it would sell for.
The company also said that in light of the alleged threats, it seemed odd that no one kept watch at the church at night, that there was no alarm system in the building, no tracking of who had keys to it and no person responsible for making sure that the building was locked. Court records also detail dozens of bounced checks and credit card debts leading up to the fire.
The checks surfaced in bank accounts tied to the church, Johnson and his wife. In a sworn statement given as part of the lawsuit, Johnson acknowledged financial problems.
Jennifer Charles, a former church member and employee, told police that Johnson often bragged about beating the system and about having a good attorney. Cook said Johnson would take insurance checks, cut a better deal with contractors and make a little money for himself.
The new church remained steadfast in its mission: Seven of them sit in the front row, staring straight at the camera. Another nine stand behind them. They look ready for a school picture. With a nod, they begin to sing. How sweet the sound That saved a wretch like me! I once was lost, but now am found; I was blind, but now I see. Some have handguns over their hearts. One woman is tightly clutching a Bible. This is the Heart of Fire gun choir. The camera pans to the center, to Johnson, right in the middle of it all.
His black leather vest carries an American flag patch, a gold cross and a medallion. In his right hand is a Kalashnikov-style assault rifle with a large, curved magazine. The rifle is pointed toward the heavens. On the other side of the Pope, a stern-looking man with a salt-and-pepper goatee. Two fingers jut out from his clench on his gun.
It almost looks like a peace sign. Through the years, as American politics grew more divisive, the Pope used his church as an outlet for his political agenda. A tax-exempt church such as Heart of Fire is barred by the U. There were many other political endorsements, former church members say.
But Hill and others said the IRS lacks the political flexibility and the resources to enforce this law. More recently, President Trump and Kentucky governor Bevin have sought to eliminate the politicking prohibition altogether. Jennifer Stepp, who was bounced from the ballot last year and replaced by Johnson, attended Heart of Fire for several months, a few years ago.
She also recalled sermons laced with racist and anti-Islam comments. And congregants smoked in church. Stepp grew troubled by another component of the church: Bikers, booze and, occasionally, bare breasts.
A part-time tattoo parlor with a costume party featuring zombie nuns in short skirts. Law enforcement saw some of this, too. State and local Alcoholic Beverage Control officers cited Johnson and the church three times between and for unlicensed alcohol sales. In one case, ABC agents arrived to see Johnson and others whisking away cases of beer from behind the bar.
Patrons told officers they had been directed to say they had brought their own alcohol in, rather than buying it there. His defense to the charge: The three criminal charges resulted in minor penalties, diversion or dismissal.
And since February , ABC officials have conducted no additional inspections at the church. No follow-ups, no check-ins, since. Meanwhile, the booze has continued to flow. Underage drinking was common, according to several people who partook. Danielle Elmore, now in her mids, was underage when she attended some of these parties.
She recalls feeling uncomfortable when a boozy Johnson would sometimes kiss her and other young women on the lips.
The year-old shifts her weight in the chair and says she is ready. She has waited years for this day. The story of how she ended up here in front of a microphone began seven weeks earlier, with our public records request to the Louisville Metro Police Department for all complaints related to Danny Ray Johnson, the self-proclaimed Pope and now state lawmaker.
The request yielded just nine pages of documents. Most of the documents were pretty routine: But there also was this report:. Sexual abuse of a year-old girl at the church.
Danny Ray Johnson listed as the suspect. But a few phone calls led to Maranda Richmond. She was willing to sit down and share her story.
She wanted others to know more about the man she knew as Pope. Cliff Richmond rides and works on bikes, and a friend said he should check out this unusual church on Bardstown Road. The church seemed welcoming, fun and unconventional. But they also provided a sense of community. They grew up together, saw each other on Sundays and spent time together outside the church.
As a young teen, Richmond would sleep over at the church, get into teenage hijinks and drink booze. Other times just booze and camaraderie. Johnson, Richmond remembers, was drunk. Midnight came, people celebrated and then partiers started to head home. Johnson disappeared for a bit to a favorite local bar, T.
Richmond had planned to stay the night with her friend Sarah at the apartment below the fellowship hall. There was no school the next day. Hours after midnight, she remembers Johnson returning to the hall, drunk. He was stumbling and fumbling around, and she helped him down the stairs into the apartment and told him to go to bed. Here, in the studio, Richmond speaks quickly without pausing.
She says she's been dealing with this for so long that telling her story barely makes her emotional anymore. She plunges ahead with the details. That night, she woke after settling in on the sofa.
She was groggy, unfocused. But she saw Johnson kneeling above her. He gave her a kiss on the head. Then he started to stroke her arm. He slid his hands up, under her shirt and bra, and groped her. He stuck his tongue in her mouth.
Then, he forced his hands down her pants, underneath her underwear, and penetrated her with his finger. She begged her pastor to stop and tried to force him off, quietly. She remembers not wanting to awaken Sarah. But Johnson was a big man, roughly twice her weight. She pleaded with him: She lay on the sofa for hours, those moments running through her head, over and over. She remembers feeling frozen. Shortly after dawn, she concocted a story for Sarah and left.
Johnson wrote that his daughter, Sarah, had told him he had been mean to the girls and his son, Boaz. Boaz did Great Sunday! What you did was beyond mean, it was evil. I never thought something like that would happen to me, especially by someone like you. What kind of impact does an alleged sexual assault at the hands of a trusted pastor have on a year-old girl? The documents outline how an alleged sexual assault pushed an honor roll student and drum major at Louisville Male High School into despair.
She had signs of post-traumatic stress disorder. The therapist noted Maranda had previously felt safe in the church, trusted the pastor and looked up to him.
Now, she was having dreams, seeing visions. She thought she saw her pastor in the backyard. She couldn't erase the image of herself, lying on a couch, a dark figure looming over her. All the preaching, all the sermons. She told her therapist: Her mother, Cathy Brooks, had expressed worry about her unusual behavior and Maranda finally told her. Then they called Cliff Richmond. Just as Maranda had predicted, her father wanted revenge. But it never occurred to him that Johnson might do something similar, or worse, to Maranda.
After all, Johnson was his longtime friend and their pastor. Cliff felt comfortable letting Maranda spend the night with her friend, Sarah. He and Johnson were like brothers.
Shortly after Maranda told her parents, the three of them went to police. It was April Officers wanted Maranda to meet with Johnson and secretly record their conversation, hoping he would confess. Instead, a detective had her call Johnson on a recorded line. Cliff had stopped going to Heart of Fire after Maranda shared her story. But, police asked him to make his own recorded call to Johnson. A scratchy recording of the call captures Cliff and Johnson making small talk for a few moments.
Then Cliff asks point-blank: Did you sexually assault my daughter? The call ends unremarkably. The detective concluded that Maranda had either withdrawn her complaint or refused to cooperate with investigators.
I feel as if they kind of gave up on it. Records show police did exactly that. Both she and Maranda say the goal was always to see Johnson brought to justice. The case file makes clear: Leitsch never attempted to interview Johnson. And it appears the detective reviewed the case under the wrong criminal classification, characterizing it as a misdemeanor, rather than a more serious felony offense. The experts were unanimous: The maximum penalty for that offense is 90 days in jail and the window for bringing a prosecution is one year.
A conviction for that offense can bring up to five years behind bars. And in Kentucky, there is no statute of limitations for a felony prosecution. First-degree sexual abuse fits with the allegations made in the case, Stengel said. The law also states that felony sexual abuse occurs when someone in a position of authority or special trust subjects a minor to sexual contact. As for police not interviewing Johnson, and not consulting with Richmond herself before closing the case, Stengel said they should have done both.
David Harris, a professor at the University of Pittsburgh School of Law, said sex crime allegations involving minors need to be investigated thoroughly and aggressively. They did agree in July to meet and talk generally about sexual assault investigations. But when questions turned to her case, things changed quickly.
Three police officials ordered us out of headquarters. Follow-up phone calls and email requests to police were ignored. On the phone, an LMPD detective asked her if she was satisfied with the initial police investigation.
The detective asked Richmond if she wanted to reopen the case. And police have complied. Richmond told us her story several months before allegations of sexual harassment and assault involving top entertainment, business and political figures rocketed across the country. Kentucky lawmakers have also once again become embroiled in controversy over sexual misconduct, the latest in a series of cases in the last several decades to tarnish the legislature.
The Republican Speaker of the House, Jeff Hoover, recently resigned his post after allegations of sexual misconduct.
Governor Bevin has urged those involved to leave office. Aside from a few temporary, short-term event licenses, the church never could sell alcohol legally during the past decade. And it still has no liquor license. Another institution that could have — and under federal law, should have — done more to examine Johnson and his church is the Internal Revenue Service.
Did they adequately vet him? And that was that. Maranda Richmond said she reached out to a television reporter in the weeks before the election, seeking to tell her story.
That effort went nowhere. We poke holes in it. The only thing that makes American democracy work is having an informed public. Journalists are the best source of information. This investigation started with a late-night text message from a longtime source earlier this year. I hate hypocrites among public officials. This led to records requests and phone calls, which led to sit-down interviews and reporting trips.
Each open door led to more doors. More twists, more turns, more lies. Johnson was the master of ceremonies. He knew why a couple of investigative reporters had come.
He knew we had information about him that differed drastically from his public persona. Calls and emails to him went unanswered. He agreed to an interview, then canceled it. After that, he passed the buck to the Kentucky Republican party, which was no help either.
And, how did he pull this whole thing off? But before Johnson took the stage, he called out loudly across the courthouse square. Then he strode over. Danny Ray Johnson looks out from the pulpit on an unfamiliar crowd of reporters in his most familiar place.
The normally boisterous Johnson is subdued. The reporters in his sanctuary ask questions, but he offers few answers, aside from denying the sexual assault allegation against him. The self-proclaimed Pope from Bullitt County walks down a rear stairwell at the Heart of Fire Church and steps out of sight. Journalists with microphones and cameras crowd around her as she picks up where her husband left off.
Their ideology is under attack. In the moment, she was talking about her husband, state representative for the 49th District.
Two days before Danny Ray Johnson held that press conference in his sanctuary, our team of reporters and editors settled in for a night of last-minute edits. The next morning, the facts were out about Danny Ray Johnson, the fast-talking preacher whose life was filled with fabrications and exaggerations.
We highlighted systemic failures that allowed him to climb from the pulpit to the statehouse, deceiving those he pledged to serve and leaving a trail of crimes, lies and hurt. Richmond was following the news when Johnson held his press conference.
On the evening of Dec. She froze when she saw a long, rambling message posted by her state representative. In his post, Johnson professed love for his wife, his children and his grandchildren. She left messages for his wife and his kids. She got no answer. Each year, some 44, people in the U. That night, Rebecca Johnson was in the Heart of Fire Church sanctuary talking to reporters from two local television stations.
She told the reporters she was asleep when her husband posted his final message to Facebook. She awoke to messages alerting her about the post, she said. Frantic, she called him again and again. Immediately, she thought about his daughter Sarah, who texted her after the story ran and called her a liar. Fearing retribution, Richmond installed an alarm system at her home. Strangers from across the country messaged her on social media.
Some blamed her for his death. Others, though, offered encouragement. Before her legislative run would begin, Rebecca Johnson had to plan a funeral for her husband of nearly 31 years. The Heart of Fire Church parking lot quickly filled on the rainy morning. Reporters flocked to the scene, too, but only one crew was allowed inside the sanctuary -- the local Fox affiliate. A few lawmakers attended, too. The governor did not. Johnson spoke about how she and Danny Ray Johnson were engaged after their first date, and had been inseparable ever since.
A man named George Augustus Stallings Jr. Stallings, a former Catholic priest, is black. The Washington Post first reported allegations in that Stallings sexually abused two young altar boys. He was excommunicated from the Catholic Church in after starting an independent church. In later stories, the Post also reported he was accused of misusing parish funds.
Stallings denied the accusations in media interviews at the time. No criminal charges were ever filed against him.