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The stronger the norms against using a particular expression, the greater the offensiveness of using that expression.

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Godverdomme Goddamn remains one of the strongest expressions in Dutch. Some swearing is characterised by taboos relating to hierarchy; specifically, expressions of disrespect for certain individuals, commonly the mother of the person insulted.

Japanese offers perhaps the most striking example of a hierarchy-themed insult. There are, after all, inoffensive ways to refer to sensitive topics: While lavatorial and sexual functions are taboo, not all ways of referring to them are indecent.

Some have suggested that the sound that swear words make contributes to their offensiveness. There is something plausible about this. Even so, the sound of swear words cannot fully account for their offensiveness. In any case, focusing on swear words themselves will not enable us to explain fully why they are offensive, because the offensiveness of a given utterance of a swear word is relative to the social and historical context.

We must look beyond the words themselves, and consider the broader behavioural contexts in which they appear. O nce we do this, the explanation is easier to find. We do, after all, have all sorts of preferences about how people behave. Many of these preferences are enshrined in our morality; others are associated with etiquette.

Etiquette varies with culture and upbringing, and its conventions are applied more strictly in some settings than in others. Swearing is a form of dispreferred linguistic behaviour. How do we get from this to an explanation of why swearing is offensive? Well, once we have established preferences about behaviour, the capacity for certain behaviour to become offensive arises quite naturally.

To illustrate this, consider the following scenario based on an actual and recurring series of events. Suppose that you make a new friend named Rebecca, and you fall into the habit of addressing her as Rachel. After you have done this a couple of times, Rebecca politely points out that her name is Rebecca, not Rachel. If, after she has drawn your attention to this, you persist in calling her Rachel, she is likely to begin to feel annoyed, and she might repeat the request to call her Rebecca.

If you ignore her request a second or third time, then — provided that she has no reason to believe you have failed to understand her requests, nor that you are incapable of easily complying with them — she is likely to eventually view your behaviour as offensive.

What started out as merely a dispreferred by Rebecca way of speaking, then, becomes offensive. How does this happen? Well, the first time you call Rebecca Rachel, Rebecca takes you to have made an innocent and regrettably common mistake, and she assumes you meant no harm.

When you continue to call her Rachel even after she has reminded you of her name, she concludes that you are being unreasonably inconsiderate of her wishes. And when you persist in calling her Rachel even after she has pointed out several times that this is not her name, it is difficult for her to avoid the conclusion that you are deliberately using an inappropriate form of address in order to upset her.

Having started out assuming that you meant no harm, she comes to view your attitude towards her as hostile. And, indeed, it is hard to see how she could be mistaken. In this example, we do not find an explanation for the offensiveness of the dispreferred expression in the expression itself.

There is nothing whatsoever that is offensive about the name Rachel. Offence escalation promises to explain how swearing came to be viewed as offensive. The story begins with certain forms of speech being dispreferred. And this makes using the dispreferred expression an even greater transgression: In the latter case, but not necessarily in the former, our audience has good reason to doubt our goodwill towards them; consequently, they are offended.

We need to add something to this offence escalation story to explain how words become swear words. As I have outlined it, offence escalation enables any word to become offensive, at least to someone, provided that it involves a word that the listener dislikes.

However, swear words are not merely words that are disliked, and which have subsequently grown to be offensive through a process of offence escalation.

In addition to being dispreferred, swear words also share certain features in common, such as their focus on taboo topics like sex and defecation. They also, as we have noted, sound a certain way.

Offence escalation does not explain why it is the taboo words with a particular sound, rather than other sorts of words, that get to be swear words. In fact, that swear words are taboo-focused fits neatly into the offence escalation story. For a speaker to get the offence escalation process started, she needs to use an expression that she knows her listener will dislike. How can she do this?

Well, if she knows her listener well enough to have a good sense of what sort of utterances he will dislike, then her job is easy, and she is well on her way to being able to offend him. Or, what if the speaker is addressing multiple people with various preferences? Can she cause offence in these circumstances? The existence of taboos means that the answer is yes.

Provided that speaker and audience recognise the same taboos — which is likely if they belong to the same culture and speak the same language — the speaker knows something about which expressions her audience will probably dislike. She knows that her audience will likely find commonly dispreferred ways of referring to taboos unpleasant.

And her audience will know that she knows that they will find such references unpleasant. This enables the offence escalation process to get off the ground. The existence of widely recognised taboos, then, offers a fast-track route for certain expressions to become widely offensive.

It also provides a certain motivation for this to happen: Shocking people can sometimes be fun. Perhaps this helps explain why swear words tend to sound a certain way: However, swear words are more than words that are universally offensive within a given culture. Slurs, too, fit this description. It seems plausible that slurs, like swears, grow to be offensive through a process of offence escalation, yet they differ from swears in that they express contempt of a given group.

Why is it that some widely dispreferred words develop into swear words whilst others develop into slurs? I think that the answer lies in what the use of the dispreferred words is taken by speaker and audience to convey. We might also add — as philosophers who write about slurs sometimes do — that by using a slur, a speaker attempts to make her audience complicit in her contempt, by signalling that she believes herself to be among people who share her contempt.

This, too, is offensive to an audience who does not share this contempt, and is insulted to be taken to do so. Swearing, then, is as offensive as it is not because of some magic ingredient possessed by swear words but lacked by other words, but because when we swear, our audience knows that we do so in the knowledge that they will find it offensive. This is why context is important: This explains why we are more tolerant of swearing by non-fluent speakers of our language, such as young children and non-native speakers, than we are of swearing by competent speakers.

When non-fluent speakers swear, often we do not suspect them of doing so knowing that their words are offensive. I haven't paid for any subscription, straightaway alarm bells were ringing. So can I just log out and delete app? Or do I need to contact them. My bank will be notified. I briefly signed up more out of curiosity but I never once tried to upgrade or anything realizing it was fake, I chose to remove my account immediately, that said, will I get billed?

I never gave any credit card information but I'm paranoid. There site is also filled with cam girls whom want nothing better than to take your money.

These girls are professionals at what they do and they'll trap by following a link to a supposed cam site where you are charged or they will make you think that they are in love with you. I found in my husband's email that he signed up for iamnaughty. Your ass is lucky youbsaid this cuz we've been together for almost a year now.

If I find out your on this site again or any other site you will live to regret it. You are free to cancel your subscription at any time. To ensure the security of your account you have to complete all steps of the subscription cancellation procedure in accordance with the security policy of our company.

Once you have done this we will send an email with further instructions to the email address you used to register with us. Should you have any questions, contact us by sending an email to: This guy is now in psych ward on involuntary commitment as he is messed up in his head. Having said this, good luck to all of you. I wish you all well and hope you have learnt your lesson.

The one that made know it was full of shit was from a very nice looking girl stating i was the best looking guy on here which was amazing because i didnt have a pic up guys if it seems to good to be true its not.

Can nobody get that these sites are for entertainment only!! One chat and it is obvious that you are talking to a bot! I have learned my lesson mate…ripped up my credit card and phoned the bank to send me a new one…. All these sites have the same profiles. Your cc provider can help you if being robbed. Want to meet girls? Go and do what you love to do in the real world. Hello I have been locked out of my account whilst trying to delete it it was a prank by my pals to set it up thinking it was on a 3 day trial I didn't mind today is the second day I have tried to delete it they won't let me and as I have already said I am blocked out now can I just phone my bank and ask them to block any further payments?

Is there any way i can stop this membership subscription i live in new Zealand ive tried everything and nothing is working i just want this to stop but nothing is working. Get the hell off of this site all you do is go around and say "no" it's not funny and you are a huge smartass!! Call your bank and tell them what happened, they should be able to reverse the fradulent charges from IAmNaughty.

Yet I figured it out after a plethora of imaginary girls asked if u could upgrade or pay for a peepshow type can chat. Call the bank and tell them your credit card was lost or stolen and they will issue you a new card and the company can not take any more money because the card will not work. If you have used your credit card to register or join, then simply report it as lost or stolen.

You will get a new credit card and all previous arrangements for that old card will cease to be made because it has been deregistered and no further deductions can be made to it. If you have other legitimate businesses that deduct money from the old card you will have to re-authorise new payments to the new card.

Your membership will cease immediately you cancell the old card. As stated above if you read the terms of service, they tell you that all the females are fake. These sites prey on lonely and vulnerable men to con them out of their money. If you have even the remotest idea how a woman's mind operates you would know that women do not act like the profiles in these sites. Genuine women talk a completely different language to that used in these profiles.

The site is a complete rip off avoid it i kept getting emails from admin saying they would close my account if i did not up grade so i said do it they never have this so called dating site is just a big scam. What is funny for me is in the chat room i posted that this whole thing was just a bit of sex chat with bots. And they kicked me out!!!!! But if you look at i am naughty, bedesreet, wivesgonewild, etc.

Just see if it fits in your entertainment budget. I am on bedesreet and having some ridiculous sex chat is really fun!!! Hey guys just wanted to post what I did to stop getting the annoying emails. First off I didn't enter any billing info just email address with them and kept getting emails. So all I did was set up a fake email with another company, yahoo, gmail, hotmail.

Went in the site and changed my email address on the site to my burner email. Seems to have worked…. I hooked up out of curiosity, next day i phoned to cancel all future payments, advisor told me all done but will get a free site called myBBWmatch.

I told him i did not want this and insisted to make sure no money comes out of my account. I was told on phone that the free 7 day trial for bbwmatch had expired and now i being charged full membership. I currently disputing this. Greetong I was on your site an was perfected by you. I did get a naught day girl have my age but didn't get the sex.

She offered really sexy. But I wasn't going to pay for sex though tempting no. What site are good for getting laid any free. PLEASE can somebody tell me if they can only get your email address and send you emails if you register or just enquire? Or can people who have never visited the page or site also receive emails? I've been on here at think it's a scam some lady wants me to pay pound to a hotel.

I was shocked to see they'd taken funds from my account without me even giving them the authority or even sippling the numbers, how is this possible and is it legal?

Please contact me how can i cancell my 3 day trail and block me from this website and i do not want any balance cut fro my account please help me. I'm a female and was a willing participant on the iamnaughty site, I posted some naughty pics, got a couple of msg's and participated in about 6 msg's with men, with out any explanation I was barred from all msg'ing activity, and a couple of my new 'friends' were not happy, so I paid the upgrade fee that women don't have to pay and was told the temporary technical issue would be fixed.

Still unable to MSG and dealing with unhappy 'friends' had to get out, and that wasn't easy either. Here is the video to cancel your account on Iamnaughty. I cancelled my 3 day trial and haven't been charged with anything also got a conformation emaiil saying I wanted to end the trial call 0r I hope these jerls burn in hell!!

The list of scams operated by the same folks behind UpForIt. You can read our […]. Anyone who read this eamil should stay out of the sites Iam Naughty and Benaughty basically same owners.

They make millions of dollars ripping people off and use that same money to migrate to Canada or US as foreign business guys. Our full investigation on this dating site is available for you to read […].

I have similar experience: However i didn't know that they continued to bill me ie: It's a con — they are criminals — simple as that! I presume many people have duped about this site — i'm one of them!!! I also will contact my cc company fraud department…and I might have to cancel my cc. I joined on the 18 jan.. Unfortunately wont get money back but at least no further payments..

The list of sites includes LocalsGoWild. They just kept hitting it. I had to close the card, and dispute the charges. Nobody ever got in contact with any scammers for real.. The women that are on there have told me that they have to register as "cam girls" and are required to take tyou to a pay site "Firecams" before they are even allowed to set up meeting anyone.

There are a few that are not camgirls,but after speaking tothem for about a hlaf hour they suddenly have to leave and are never heard from again.

If you ask them if they are "cam girls" they either refuse to answer the question or lie. Another scam they use is verification. They want you to go to another paysite and been verified becuase they have suffered some indiginity in the past. In the time I have been on the site, I have found three or four women who were real, and like I said before they were gone within an hour. Thanks for the information on Bulova LTD. You are correct they are behind many phony dating services.

They hire 3rd party contractors to chat with people as well. Exact thing happened to me saying go to this site and get verified I don't know you and ever heard of the Craiglist killer and I have been hurt in the past. If you do this you get my cell and we can meet up but how is having a credit card prove you are not a killer?? They don't run background checks on you it's all a scam I didn't fall for it and yet they continued to email me and I ended up blocking their email..

I had the same experience with a site that is called Maxxdate. Once you enter, you are bombarded with nice women.

I noticed that they all responded the same to my questions. When I mentioned the phrase "date bait" for the site, the "women" got angry. Once I said I would report the site, they closed my account. I didn't pay for anything, but I did start an account. I didn't give them any information, besides my email and location, can they steal my money, or am I safe? I didn't give them any information, besides my email and location, can they steal my money, or am I safe??

I've never seen a more stupid group of people and their comments in my life. Seriously, some of the most ignorant and just plain stupid comments on any article ever. The messages pops up in some live streaming sites and it is disgusting as where local girls would want you but wants you to register first.

I have had a lot of these chats and all they ask is register and I laugh because a local within my area wants me to pay before i meet her. Yep,they got me for Then caught on to them. Went head to head emails with Administration. Told them I see them in court. They didn't reply back. First message ever received was from a Bot cause the pics used were from a gal,I personally know. A total scam, worse yet just by installing to look at it, they improperly charged me a subscription — with automatic renewal!

All dating sites are scams they are full of fulse profiles,con merchants and gold diggers! These sites are designed for lonely ugly men that are unable to date women in the conventional way! Unless a woman is very old or hidiously ugly she can get sex and dates any time she wants! I myself am an ugly man in my late fourties I have never had a girlfriend and am a virgin.

I have been using dating sites for 19 years and despite sending thousands of messages to women all I have had back are emails from Admin or women in foreign countries who are attempting to extort money from me. Close my account and delete my profile. As soon as I signed up for the 3 day trial I had local girls messaging me but when I would ask them a question they would neverr answer or answer my question with a question. Then I started getting messages from cam girls wanting me to go to their site and pay and the site was owned by the company, they also own flirt.

It's pathetic they do this to people and hope they get shutdown. The long list of sites includes SaucySingles. This is also a fake site run by finders! That site also puts up fake profiles to trick you, this is a scam! The number one site that it looks like it's sending traffic to is IAmNaughty. We know IAmNaughty very well since we exposed this website many years ago 4 years ago to be exact […]. This list of fake dating sites being promoted by them includes Loveaholics.

Take me off your list I don't not have a credit card I'm not interested I do not have plastic I cannot be a member. Your email address will not be published. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed. Exposing The Scam Wide Open When doing any type of reviews or investigative reporting it's important to find factual evidence that backs up your statements. You acknowledge and agree that some of the profiles posted on the Website that you may communicate with as a Registered User may be fictitious.

The purpose of our creating these profiles is to provide our Registered Users with entertainment The messages they send are computer generated. Messages from the user profiles we create attempt to simulate communications so that should you become a paid Member. The user profiles we create are not intended to resemble or mimic any actual persons.

We may create several different user profiles that we attach to a given picture. You also acknowledge and agree that the descriptions, pictures and information included in such profiles are provided primarily for your amusement.

Additionally, we will utilize our automated system profiles to communicate with Users. Minh vi vo says: November 2, at November 2, at 5: June 14, at 5: December 7, at October 19, at 8: August 28, at 3: October 16, at 5: January 3, at October 16, at 6: July 19, at 9: December 17, at 2: June 16, at 2: September 2, at 3: October 21, at December 19, at 3:

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